Preparing your files for best results

File types

It’s best to work with .wav or .aiff files. Exporting them at 24 or 32 bit is ideal, but 16 bit will do if it’s all you have. 44.1, 48 or 96 kHz are all great. We can also work with most other digital formats if necessary.

A stereo file is preferred – there is no need to export Right & Left channels as split mono.

MP3’s are not the best quality to give us for mastering. MP3’s should only be sent as a last resort if you have no other copies of your track.

Mixdown level

The golden rule: The levels on the WAV you send should not be not clipping “in the red” at 0dB or more, anywhere in the song. If it is clipped then you lose transient definition, punch, it can distort – it’s worth getting it right pre-mastering.

To check if your mix is clipping: Check your master out meter, and if it is showing in the red at the loudest part of your track then you must reduce the volume of everything going in to the master, until there is no more clipping.
Ideally, by following good mixing practices there should be no clipping at all by the time you export your mix.

If you are not a mix-purist, then there is an easy workaround: On most modern DAW systems there is a dedicated Gain control on the master out. By turning it down until the loudest bit of your track peaks at around -1dB (no red on the volume meters anywhere in the track).

Aim to deliver your mix peaking at around -1dB. An exact figure isn’t essential if you are working at 24 bit or higher as the quality is so good anyway. If you are not an audio-expert don’t stress – realistically you can deliver anywhere down to about -10dB (or even lower at 32 bit) and the end result will be fine. We can adjust the input this end anyway. The peak level of your mixdown does not affect the final level of your master. Any problems drop us an email and we will be happy to assist you.

Effects and processing

Leave on any plugins & effects that are CREATIVE (e.g. flange, delay, chorus, distortion, creative EQ) as you know how you want these to sound better than anyone. It’s useful to export the reverb in a separate stem of its own.

Unless you are fully confident in your monitoring and room response, switch off any plugins and effects that are CORRECTIVE (compression, corrective EQ) and export without these effects applied. You can send us a note if you have any specific concerns about your mix, or use our mix evaluation service pre-mastering.

Please remove any limiters or heavy compression from your DAW’s master out bus. Especially remove limiters – Asking a mastering engineer to work on a mix that has already been heavily limited could be likened to a chef being asked to create a gourmet meal from ingredients which have already been cooked. It would still taste OK, but using fresh ingredients would give better results. Over zealous use of “Loudness Maximizers” before the mastering stage is generally undesirable. Proper mastering is dependent on being able to subtly adjust the dynamic range of a track to get the best overall sound, bounce & vibes. Limiters can kill dynamic range if not used carefully, making the mastering engineer have to fight against the processing that’s already there.

If you have done a self-master then it can be useful to send it too as a reference, so I can hear what you are shooting for. Tell us what you like and don’t like about it. Likewise if you have had disappointing results with another mastering engineer then send their master too and tell me what you do and don’t like about it.

Extra steps to prepare for mixing

Get your mix as good and close to what you want as you can. They say a picture tells a thousand words, and for us hearing your best/closest mix is better than any description you can write. It gives us a great framework to jump off from, and ensures we start from a place that’s close to your heart.

Follow the headroom advice above, but make sure each individual channel on your mix is free of clipping, not just the master out. You may have to lower all the volume faders down a few dB (lower them all by the same amount to preserve your mix).

Understand that the final result will always reflect the quality of what is put in. Obviously nobody can make a £50 guitar sound exactly like Jimi Hendrix’s guitar chain, or magically turn a cheap USB mic recording into a Neumann, so please have realistic expectations if you are using lo-fi equipment – If a £50 mic was as good as a £3000 mic, then nobody would ever use the expensive ones, right?

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